ANINHADO (“nested” in Portuguese) is a program developed for fast and autonomous calculation of two distinct measures of nestedness. Nestedness is a feature of binary matrices (also called presence/absence matrices). The notion of nestedness is particularly relevant for studies focusing the patterns of species occurrence among a set of locations (e.g., islands) and the patterns of interacting species within ecological networks. ANINHADO is a program for researchers already familiarized with the nestedness concept and null model analysis.

The degree of nestedness of a given binary matrix can be computed using distinct metrics. ANINHADO computes two of them: the recently-proposed NODF (Almeida-Neto et al. 2008) and the popular matrix’s Temperature (T, Atmar & Paterson 1993). We strongly recommended the use of NODF to characterize the degree of nestedness due its theoretical consistence and its statistical behavior (Almeida-Neto et al. 2008). However, users may use T for compare his/her studied systems with published data.

Click here to download ANINHADO and its manual, If you use ANINHADO in your analyses please cite:

Guimarães, P. R. , P. Guimarães. 2006. Improving the analyses of nestedness for large sets of matrices. Environmental Modelling and Software. 21: 1512-1513. [PDF]

If you use NODF, please also cite: Almeida-Neto M., Guimaraes P., Guimaraes P.R., Loyola R.D. & Ulrich W. 2008. A consistent metric for nestedness analysis in ecological systems: reconciling concept and measurement. Oikos 117: 1227-1239.

If you use T, please also cite: Atmar, W. & Paterson, B. D. 1993. The measure of order and disorder in the distribution of species in fragmented habitats. Oecologia 96: 373-382.

If you want to updates of ANINHADO or have any doubt, please email us. Recent updates of ANINHADO are available here



DIETA (“diet” in Portuguese) is a program developed for calculates two indices of diet variation based on network theory (additional information @ Marcio Araujo's website.

Click here to download DIETA and its manual, If you use DIETA in your analyses please cite:

Araujo, M. S., P. R. Guimaraes, R. Svanback, A. Pinheiro, P. Guimaraes, S. F. dos Reis, D. I. Bolnick. 2008. Network analysis reveals contrasting effects of intraspecific competitions on individual vs. population diets. Ecology 89: 1981-1993.


Sobre administrar o tempo (em portugues)

Uma planilha para administracao do tempo e algumas sugestoes [pasta].